Efficient Conversion of Waste into Useable Energy Alternate Energy Research & Innovation Lab (AERIL)

In Pakistan, the issue of safe municipal waste has been a severe issue since forever. Majority of the waste is either incinerated or dumped into the ground or water bodies leading to ground and water contamination. The incineration of the municipal waste give rise to toxic emissions including SOx and NOx that not only pollute the atmosphere but also leads to catastrophic situations like smog and lowering of air quality to an alarming level. Hence, a safe disposal is required to get rid of the municipal waste. Catalytic Gasification is considered as an emerging technology on the horizon due to its ability to not only reduce the landfills but also to convert it into useful fuel while creating negligible toxic emissions. This eventually reduces the practice of direct combustion. The direct combustion of the biomass in open air results in emission of greenhouse gases. The conventional bio gasifier design available takes a long span of time for the gasification of waste and eventually reduces its economic feasibility and viability. CERAD UET is working on project which uses catalytic gasification technique to transform municipal waste into efficient fuel and it differs from simple gasification in numerous ways. The process of conventional gasification requires high temperature and produces low quality fuel. In order to resolve these problems catalytic gasification will be carried out. Catalytic gasification has the ability to convert 90-95% wastes contents into syngas and liquid oil. This extracted liquid oil can be further converted into diesel through transesterification. The results show that extracted diesel has high heating value of 40-45MJ/kg, a boiling point of 70-352oC and a flash point of 25-50oC. Hence, the extracted bio diesel is of high quality and can be used in electricity production, transport fuel and for heating process. The designed product will effectively cater the need of energy amongst the people enable safe disposal of municipal waste. This will eventually displace the conventional burning of wood and bio-mass that pollutes the environment and will offer a safe and controlled process. In addition to this, the side products obtained in the form of char can also be utilized in several applications i.e. as an adsorbent material of pollutant for the removal of heavy water from sewage and waste water. Under this project, a bio-mas gasifier has been fabricated employing the down draught stalk gasification technology that can convert bio-mass and wood straws in to energy. The product ensures the degradation of the products in a controlled air environment that eventually produces burnable syngas. The bio-gas produces is the further heat dried in the product and after splitting from the vapors, combustion takes places that produces negligible NOx and SOx.  The product designed doesn’t create any sort of smoke and is able to be fed with the input continuously.