Energy Efficiency and Conservation Lab is working on a project “Gadget (Test Bench) Development for Water Pump and Agricultural Tube Well, Energy Efficiency Measurement and Improvement” funded by Technology Development Fund (TDF) Higher Education Commission (HEC). It is set to develop a good linkage between industry and academia from all aspects. The project is lucrative and will bring up fruitful results. The proposed product is an attempt to perform analysis on the performance of main components of water pumping system i.e. pump and motor and manufacturing a system in light of the analysis that is robust, easily available and cost effective. The developed system will be fabricated in accordance with energy efficiency standards and will meet the international benchmarks, boosting indigenous development and minimizing import of energy efficient water pumping systems. This project will assist with water-energy nexus challenges in Pakistan, as it will offer highly accurate pump performance and efficiency testing in drinking water and irrigation applications using industry-leading technology based on the advanced testing method. Besides, it will significantly be reducing energy consumption in agriculture and domestic sectors for water pumping systems. It is also set to provide a backbone to pump manufacturing Industry in Pakistan especially medium and small-scale manufacturers. The need of importing the pump/turbine unit’s volume will be minimized with this venture. Since it is geared up to bridge industry and academia gap, the proposed research aims to develop energy efficient water pumping system based on performance analysis on existing water pumping systems. TDF brings the project development team (UET) and project marketing team (industry) under one roof to introduce the technology of energy efficient pumping systems in Pakistan and subsequently bring such systems to mass production. This will scale up university research to industrial scale production because project development and project marketing are two different domains with different skill set requirements that work must parallel to fill the technology gap in Pakistan. TDF brings the project development team (UET) and project marketing team (industry) under one roof to introduce the technology of energy efficient pumping systems in Pakistan and subsequently bring such systems to mass production. The project aims to develop energy efficient water pumping systems indigenously, boost local production and minimize the demand of imported water pumping systems to make self-sufficient Pakistan.
In Pakistan, the issue of safe municipal waste has been a severe issue since forever. Majority of the waste is either incinerated or dumped into the ground or water bodies leading to ground and water contamination. The incineration of the municipal waste give rise to toxic emissions including SOx and NOx that not only pollute the atmosphere but also leads to catastrophic situations like smog and lowering of air quality to an alarming level. Hence, a safe disposal is required to get rid of the municipal waste. Catalytic Gasification is considered as an emerging technology on the horizon due to its ability to not only reduce the landfills but also to convert it into useful fuel while creating negligible toxic emissions. This eventually reduces the practice of direct combustion. The direct combustion of the biomass in open air results in emission of greenhouse gases. The conventional bio gasifier design available takes a long span of time for the gasification of waste and eventually reduces its economic feasibility and viability. CERAD UET is working on project which uses catalytic gasification technique to transform municipal waste into efficient fuel and it differs from simple gasification in numerous ways. The process of conventional gasification requires high temperature and produces low quality fuel. In order to resolve these problems catalytic gasification will be carried out. Catalytic gasification has the ability to convert 90-95% wastes contents into syngas and liquid oil. This extracted liquid oil can be further converted into diesel through transesterification. The results show that extracted diesel has high heating value of 40-45MJ/kg, a boiling point of 70-352oC and a flash point of 25-50oC. Hence, the extracted bio diesel is of high quality and can be used in electricity production, transport fuel and for heating process. The designed product will effectively cater the need of energy amongst the people enable safe disposal of municipal waste. This will eventually displace the conventional burning of wood and bio-mass that pollutes the environment and will offer a safe and controlled process. In addition to this, the side products obtained in the form of char can also be utilized in several applications i.e. as an adsorbent material of pollutant for the removal of heavy water from sewage and waste water. Under this project, a bio-mas gasifier has been fabricated employing the down draught stalk gasification technology that can convert bio-mass and wood straws in to energy. The product ensures the degradation of the products in a controlled air environment that eventually produces burnable syngas. The bio-gas produces is the further heat dried in the product and after splitting from the vapors, combustion takes places that produces negligible NOx and SOx. The product designed doesn’t create any sort of smoke and is able to be fed with the input continuously.
Centre for Energy Research and Development in collaboration with National Centre for Physics has been awarded a waste to energy Research project under HEC TDF ‘Energy Extraction by Safe Disposal of Municipal Waste Using Nanotechnology’. Project’s need emerged because the disposal of municipal wastes was a major concern for environment and health of the public. The wastes are either disposed off in landfills or recycled. Landfills are increasing both land and water pollution. When this waste meets the ground water, it leads to water contamination. When these wastes are recycled, there emerges a great risk of reuse and transfer of diseases as high temperature melting doesn’t ensure 100 percent disinfection. This project proposes the utilization of catalytic gasification technique to thermally decompose the municipal waste for generation of energy. By doing this not only the landfill and massive transformation of waste can be reduced but also useful fuels can be extracted.
These fuels can be used either for heating purposes or generation of electricity. This will also reduce the practice of direction combustion. Combusting the biomass in open air results in emission of greenhouse gases. By gasification, the municipal will be thermally decomposed with negligible amount of toxic emissions. This project is much beneficial as far as TDF in bridging the industry and academia are concerned as it fills the gap between the two. Why? This is because this project is partially funded by the Industrial partner FSK Pvt. Ltd., both the experts from Academia and Industry are working together in a collaborative manner to make the proposed sustainable and Economic. The modeling and Engineering design experience form Academia and Fabrication and Mass scale experience from Industry when combined together are resulting in success of this Research project. The project has great potential and will help the country to be a knowledgeable Economy. Wastes to Energy plants are installed across the country but mostly these plants are based on biomass. But taking a look on municipal waste to energy plants, there are not any because of the higher capital costs and non-availability in the local market. This project is aimed to develop a conversion plant based on indigenous nous resources and capable to covert municipal wastes. Developing this plant will contribute in the knowledge economy of the country.
Energy Efficiency and Conservation Lab (EECL) has been developing strong linkage with industries by keeping energy conservation key concept in mind. The lab also performs domestic commercial, industrial energy audits and provides hands on training to engineers and diploma holders in its ‘Energy Efficiency Advisor’ program. The lab has developed a pump test bench demo unit and it has been developed because of the higher demand of drinking water. Although the demand of the drinking water is undoubtedly high, the options for new development of water resources are limited. The major element of water supply system used in domestic, agriculture and industry are Water Pumping Systems. Almost every household utilizes water pumping systems for water storage. Over time, pumps deteriorate and their efficiency can fall by up to 10–15 percent causing scarcity and interruption in supply of water. Energy Efficiency & Conservation Lab (EECL) is on way to provide assistance in water-energy nexus challenges in Pakistan. Besides, it will provide with highly accurate pump performance analysis. For the medium and small-scale manufacturers, the lab will appear to be a backbone for the pump manufacturing industry. In order to meet the major demand of water supply systems in the country, water pumping systems happen to be the important component.
In Pakistan about 1.3million tube wells are operational while every household utilizes water pumping systems for water storage. Moreover, these tube wells/pumps operate at inefficient load band conditions which results in the excess energy consumption and lower efficiency. Over time, pumps deteriorate and their efficiency can fall by up to 10–15 percent causing scarcity and interruption in supply of water. These factors stimulate the demand of an improved water pumping system that is robust, cost effective and energy efficient by keeping in mind socio-economic conditions of Pakistan. The system developed by EECL is aptly accordance with energy efficiency standards. The designed pumping test bench will provide the performance report highly accurately and will meet the international bench marks. The main objectives of the designed product include achieving pump/turbine manufacturing in Pakistan according to required flow and pumping speed by improving the performance of the pump and efficiency of motor to draw the characteristic curves according to international benchmark. The designed product shall minimize the import of pump/turbine units and improve the quality of manufacturing of pumps according to international standards. A pump testing prototype is based on programmable logic controller (PLC), Human Machine Interface (HMI), Control Cabinet, and different of instruments. It will be featured with all necessary tests accurately according to International benchmark and user-friendly display board.
CERAD UET’s Wudu Water Conservation project is really unique and much beneficial as it recycles the water that is used for wudu at Mosques. Pakistan is running short of water and this is a super alarming situation on which the government and even the Supreme Court too have started taking actions to build the dams to avoid the water losses for the people in coming year. Rapid works are being done in this regard nationally and internationally and at all levels. This situation is deteriorating day by day. To control this problem, we have to conserve our water supplies. In our mosques an enormous quantity of water gets wasted during ablution. This water goes into the black water drainage system, so it is of no use for us. On the other hand, we can use it for many applications by setting up a simple setup that allows us to recycle this water.
The water we get during the ablution is basically the grey water. What is Grey Water…obviously is not a familiar term for many of us. Grey water is gently used water from your bathroom sinks, showers, tubs, and washing machines. It is not water that has come into contact with feces, either from the toilet or from washing diapers. Grey water may contain traces of dirt, food, grease, hair, and certain household cleaning products. While grey water may look “dirty,” it is a safe and even beneficial source of irrigation water in a yard and for use in washroom in flashing process. Keep in mind that if grey water is released into rivers, lakes, or estuaries, its nutrients become pollutants, but to plants, they are valuable fertilizer. An attempt has been made to explore ablution water reuse potential at a Mosque in University of Engineering and Technology Lahore.
Floods of various scales hit Pakistan every year specially, in monsoon period. In the late July 2010, flooding of Indus River is considered to be one of the worst in the history of Pakistan. According to the government of Pakistan data almost 20 million people and one fifth of the total land area of the Pakistan were affected. Absence of clean and drinkable water appears to be one of the key challenges apart from the malnutrition and devastated infrastructure in flood affected areas. While adequate quantity of flood water is available, that contains dissolved solids and pathogens which cause various life-threatening diseases such as typhoid and cholera. To provide clean and drinkable water to the affected communities, Dr Asif Tabish, Assistant Professor and Consultant at CERAD is developing an easier, cheaper, and faster solution for water purification. Chlorination, Ozonation, reverse osmosis and UV are the most commonly used method for disinfection. Despite that chlorine is most effective method of drinking water disinfection, it has several disadvantages. These includes, unfavorable taste and odor associated with the use of chlorine in the drinking water. Moreover, chlorine is ineffective for some microorganisms while using alone, also it produces toxic by-products. This project funded by HEC targets the use of electrolysis technique with appropriate pre-filtration for flood water purification which is more feasible alternative of chlorination. Power requirements to operate the system can be met by harvesting solar energy so that it can be taken in service at any place where electricity is not available or cut off due to flood. Moreover, the trace quantities of metal can be removed efficiently from the flood water by subjecting it to direct electric current. The treatment unit consists of storage tanks dc pump, dc power supply through solar panel, pre-filtration unit and electrolysis chamber.
The basic objective of this project is to provide drinkable water to flood affected peoples by cost effective and in situ treatment of flood water.
- Using electrolysis technology in purification unit, contains no harmful chemical that pose a bad effect on human health as associated with other chemical methods.
- Low Energy and material cost as compared to other methods.
- Can be easily implemented and easy for people to use.